Note from the original publisher

How do you communicate a good idea? James T. McCay has spent most of his adult life working as a consultant to management.

He has sought to help managers find ways to improve the performance of organized groups without thwarting the vital spirit of the individual.

Just as the individual can become energized to high levels of performance, McCay feels the time has come when groups of individuals also can become similarly energized. And he believes this can be done with regularity.

Certainly , today many are searching for better and more satisfactory ways to reach group objectives. This pursuit manifests itself in many forms – from such organized self-help groups as Weight Watchers to Alcoholics Anonymous, from Esalen to consciousness-raising groups of all kinds.

Whatever form such groups take, the underlying rationale is similar – a cohesive group can help the individual realize his own potential at the same time the individual contributes his energy to a greater realization of’ the group’s objectives.

This phenomenon is often referred to as “synergism”. Simply put, when the whole is greater than the sum of the parts, you have “synergy”.

Acknowledging that such synergistic or human potential groups have flourished in recent years, the natural question from organizational managers has been: but can it work here? “Our business is productivity not self enlightenment.” “Our profits are measured in dollars not better feelings.”

Three years ago, the Author sought to find out receptive management was to some of the ideas of synergism. Bell-Northern Research of Canada published Beyond Motivation in its May issue of THE (a series of publications about new horizons in communications). The response from managers and planners in industry, commerce, and governments was overwhelming. Hundreds of individuals who became aware of the booklet requested copies for uses ranging from motivating salesmen to inspiring more innovative corporate development.

Since their original publication in 1970, Bell-Northern Research has compiled an impressive, file of letters from organization leaders in a large number of companies in both Canada and the United States. The briefest summary we can give of this surprising response is that there are quite a few people who believe as the Author does that motivation based on fear is not the way to get the most out of people in business and industry.

Beyond Motivation may strike some as a strange book, or perhaps not a book at all. It is frankly an experiment in communication. In the most concise way possible, the Author has synthesized some of the major ideas of conntemporary humanistic writers: A.H. Maslow, Peter Drucker, Rollo May, Fritz Perls, Marshall McLuhan, Wilheim Reich, Ivan lllich to name but a few.

This is a book that doesn’t attempt so much to impart new information as it does to organize ideas in such a way that the reader can bring his own experience to shape the idea. Deliberately, there is space around the Author’s assertions, This book does not attempt to pursuade by documented argumentation but to present a framework of abstractions which suggest, provoke, and inspire thoughts and feelings in the reader.

Presented in this form, there are many uses of Beyond Motivation. It has been used to help the individual better integrate his own thinking about human behavior and human relations. It has been used as a means of sharing with others how the indivdual thinks about the subject. It has been used as a background reference tool for conferences and educational classes. Finally, it also serves as an outline for structuring organizational settings.

We believe the book can be particularly useful in a group, because it provides, for our time, a valid rationale for an individual’s role within the context of group endeavor. The brevity of the book ensures that the reader can be exposed — and grasp the essentials – in fifteen to twenty minutes. Anyone who has tried to communicate complex ideas through comprehensive books knows how useful such brevity can be.

There are many routes to reach a goal and the Author does not presume to know the appropriate ways for all. He practices an approach not the approach. He has indicated where we are going not how we will get there.

Jeffrey Norton
Jeffrey Norton Publishers

Beyond Motivation (Expanded Edition)

Tydbyte Media, a division of Tydbytes Inc.
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Rollo May

Rollo May (April 21, 1909 – October 22, 1994) was an American existential psychologist. He is often associated with both humanistic psychology and existentialist philosophy.

He was the author of the influential book Love and Will, which was published in 1969.

May was a close friend of the philosopher and theologian Paul Tillich, who was a significant influence on his work. His works include Love and Will and The Courage to Create, the latter title honoring Tillich’s The Courage to Be.

May was influenced by American humanism, and interested in reconciling existential psychology with other philosophies, especially Freud’s.

May considered Otto Rank (1884-1939) to be the most important precursor of existential therapy. Shortly before his death, May wrote the foreword to Robert Kramer’s edited collection of Rank’s American lectures. “I have long considered Otto Rank to be the great unacknowledged genius in Freud’s circle,” wrote May (Rank, 1996, p. xi).

May used some traditional existential terms in a slightly different fashion than others, and he invented new words for traditional existentialist concepts. Destiny, for example, could be “thrownness” combined with “fallenness”— the part of our lives that is determined for us, for the purpose of creating our lives. He also used the word “courage” to signify resisting anxiety.

He defined certain “stages” of development:

Innocence – the pre-egoic, pre-self-conscious stage of the infant. An innocent is only doing what he or she must do. However, an innocent does have a degree of will in the sense of a drive to fulfill needs.

Rebellion – the rebellious person wants freedom, but does not yet have a good understanding of the responsibility that goes with it.

Decision – The person is in a transition stage in their life such that they need to be more independent from their parents and settle into the “ordinary stage”. In this stage they must decide what to do with their life, and fulfilling rebellious needs from the rebellious stage.

Ordinary – the normal adult ego learned responsibility, but finds it too demanding, and so seeks refuge in conformity and traditional values.

Creative – the authentic adult, the existential stage, self-actualizing and transcending simple egocentrism.

These are not “stages” in the traditional sense. A child may certainly be innocent, ordinary or creative at times; an adult may be rebellious. The only association with certain ages is in terms of importance: rebelliousness is more important for a two year old or a teenager.

May perceived the sexual mores of the 1960s and 1970s, as well as commercialization of sex and pornography, as having influenced society such that people believed that love and sex are no longer associated directly.

According to May, emotion has become separated from reason, making it acceptable socially to seek sexual relationships and avoid the natural drive to relate to another person and create new life. May believed that sexual freedom can cause modern society to neglect more important psychological developments.

May suggests that the only way to remedy the cynical ideas that characterize our times is to rediscover the importance of caring for another, which May describes as the opposite of apathy.

His first book, The Meaning of Anxiety, was based on his doctoral dissertation, which in turn was based on his reading of the 19th century philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. His definition of anxiety is “the apprehension cued off by a threat to some value which the individual holds essential to his existence as a self” (1967, p. 72). He also quotes Kierkegaard: “Anxiety is the dizziness of freedom”. In 1956, he edited the book Existence with Ernst Angel and Henri Ellenberger. Existence helped introduce existential psychology to the US.