reference – publications

The following publications are referenced by James T. McCay in BEYOND MOTIVATION and noted on the appropriate page.

Jim was a master of synergizing and connecting the dots and I find it exciting to be able look at where the germs of McCay’s thoughts came from. – Richard E. Ward

The synopsis for each publication has been added to this edition of BEYOND MOTIVATION and linked to the author bios in the book for easy reference while reading.

Follow the links below to find a copy of the brief synopsis of each publication as well as links to buy the books online in the Beyond Motivation Bookstore Shop.

Eupsychian Management

Eupsychian Management by Abraham H. Maslow is considered to be a seminal work on human behavior in the workplace.

Eupsychian Management
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Eupsychian Management offers Maslow’s theories on such issues as how to encourage people to express their creativity, the importance of psychological health, and leadership ideas that are commonly accepted notions in management circles at the end of the twentieth century.

Maslow led the way in demonstrating to corporate executives that the development of individual workers positively affects their bottom line.


The word “Eupsychian”, coined by Maslow and pronounced “you-sigh-key-un”, is derived from ‘eu‘ meaning good as in euphoria and ‘psyche‘ meaning mind or soul. So eupsychian essentially means “having a good mind/soul”, “toward a good mind/soul” or “good souled”.

Eupsychia is where nice people live and work.

Maslow adapted his ideas to Management in “Eupsychian Management” with the following assumptions:

  • a. Assume everyone is to be trusted.
  • b. Assume everyone is to be informed as completely as possible of as many facts and truths as possible, i.e., everything relevant to the situation.
  • c. Assume in all your people the impulse to achieve…
  • d. Assume that there is no dominance-subordination hierarchy in the jungle sense or authoritarian sense (or “baboon” sense).
  • e. Assume that everyone will have the same ultimate managerial objectives and will identify with them no matter where they are in the organization or in the hierarchy.
  • f. Eupsychian economics must assume good will among all the members of the organization rather than rivalry or jealousy.
  • i. Synergy is also assumed.
  • g. Assume that the individuals involved are healthy enough.
  • h. Assume that the organization is healthy enough, whatever this means.
  • i. Assume the “ability to admire”…
  • j. We must assume that the people in eupsychian plants are not fixated at the safety-need level.
  • k. Assume an active trend to self-actualization—freedom to effectuate one’s own ideas, to select one’s own friends and one’s own kind of people, to “grow,” to try things out, to make experiments and mistakes, etc.
  • l. Assume that everyone can enjoy good teamwork, friendship, good group spirit, good group homonomy, good belongingness, and group love.
  • m. Assume hostility to be primarily reactive rather than character-based.
  • n. Assume that people can take it, that they are tough, stronger than most people give them credit for.
  • o. Eupsychian management assumes that people are improvable.
  • p. Assume that everyone prefers to feel important, needed, useful, successful, proud, respected, rather than unimportant, interchangeable anonymous, wasted, unused, expendable, disrespected.
  • q. That everyone prefers or perhaps even needs to love his boss (rather than to hate him), and that everyone prefers to respect his boss (rather than to disrespect him)…
  • r. Assume that everyone dislikes fearing anyone (more than he likes fearing anyone), but that he prefers fearing the boss to despising the boss.
  • s. Eupsychian management assumes everyone prefers to be a prime mover rather than a passive helper, a tool, a cork tossed about on the waves.
  • t. Assume a tendency to improve things, to straighten the crooked picture on the wall, to clean up the dirty mess, to put things right, make things better, to do things better.
  • u. Assume that growth occurs through delight and through boredom.
  • v. Assume preference for being a whole person and not a part, not a thing or an implement, or tool, or “hand.”
  • w. Assume the preference for working rather than being idle.
  • x. All human beings, not only eupsychian ones, prefer meaningful work to meaningless work.
  • y. Assume the preference for personhood, uniqueness as a person, identity (in contrast to being anonymous or interchangeable).
  • z. We must make the assumption that the person is courageous enough for eupsychian processes.
  • aa. We must make the specific assumptions of nonpsychopathy (a person must have a conscience, must be able to feel shame, embarrassment, sadness, etc.)
  • bb. We must assume the wisdom and the efficacy of self-choice.
  • cc. We must assume that everyone likes to be justly and fairly appreciated, preferably in public.
  • dd. We must assume the defense and growth dialectic for all these positive trends that we have already listed above.
  • ee. Assume that everyone but especially the more developed persons prefer responsibility to dependency and passivity most of the time.
  • ff. The general assumption is that people will get more pleasure out of loving than they will out of hating (although the pleasures of hating are real and should not be overlooked).
  • gg. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather create than destroy.
  • hh. Assume that fairly well-developed people would rather be interested than be bored.
  • ii. We must ultimately assume at the highest theoretical levels of eupsychian theory, a preference or a tendency to identify with more and more of the world, moving toward the ultimate of mysticism, a fusion with the world, or peak experience, cosmic consciousness, etc.
  • jj. Finally we shall have to work out the assumption of the metamotives and the metapathologies, of the yearning for the “B-values,” i.e., truth, beauty, justice, perfection, and so on.
Eupsychian Management
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Abraham H. Maslow

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a theory of self-actualization.

He was the author of EUPSYCHIAN MANAGEMENT – considered to be a seminal work on human behavior in the workplace and MOTIVATION AND PERSONALITY – exploring the complex world of what motivates people and how their personalities interact with these motivations.

Maslow was a psychology professor at Brandeis University, Brooklyn College, New School for Social Research and Columbia University. He stressed the importance of focusing on the positive qualities in people, as opposed to treating them as a “bag of symptoms.”

According to Maslow, self-actualising people share the following qualities:

  • Truth: honest, reality, beauty, pure, clean and unadulterated completeness
  • Goodness: rightness, desirability, uprightness, benevolence, honesty
  • Beauty: rightness, form, aliveness, simplicity, richness, wholeness, perfection, completion,
  • Wholeness: unity, integration, tendency to oneness, interconnectedness, simplicity, organization, structure, order, not dissociated, synergy
  • Dichotomy-transcendence: acceptance, resolution, integration, polarities, opposites, contradictions
  • Aliveness: process, not-deadness, spontaneity, self-regulation, full-functioning
  • Unique: idiosyncrasy, individuality, non comparability, novelty
  • Perfection: nothing superfluous, nothing lacking, everything in its right place, just-rightness, suitability, justice
  • Necessity: inevitability: it must be just that way, not changed in any slightest way
  • Completion: ending, justice, fulfillment
  • Justice: fairness, suitability, disinterestedness, non partiality,
  • Order: lawfulness, rightness, perfectly arranged
  • Simplicity: nakedness, abstract, essential skeletal, bluntness
  • Richness: differentiation, complexity, intricacy, totality
  • Effortlessness: ease; lack of strain, striving, or difficulty
  • Playfulness: fun, joy, amusement
  • Self-sufficiency: autonomy, independence, self-determining.

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow | Heirarchy of Needs
An interpretation of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom.

A visual aid was created to explain his theory, which was called the Hierarchy of Needs, is a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological and physical. When a human being ascends the steps of the pyramid he reaches self-actualization.

At the bottom of the pyramid are the “Basic needs or Physiological needs” of a human being: food, water, sleep and sex.

The next level is “Safety Needs: Security, Order, and Stability.” These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety, they attempt to accomplish more.

The third level of need is “Love and Belonging,” which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others, such as with family and friends.

The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the need to be competent and recognized, such as through status and level of success.

Then there is the “Cognitive” level, where individuals intellectually stimulate themselves and explore.
After that is the “Aesthetic” level, which is the need for harmony, order and beauty.

At the top of the pyramid, “Need for Self-actualization,” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding because they have achieved their full potential.

Once a person has reached the self-actualization state they focus on themselves and try to build their own image. They may look at this in terms of feelings such as self-confidence or by accomplishing a set goal